Briefly, the impulsive people have a strong urge to act without thinking. Although it is sometimes regarded as a positive trait the plain impulsiveness is also widely present in clinical disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug dependence, mania, and antisocial behaviour.
In this article is described the significance of the impulsiveness for clinical disorders expressing impulsive behaviour as well as the pivotal contribution made by the brain systems working with dopamine and serotonin in the aetiology and treatment of behavioural syndromes expressing impulsive symptoms (1).
So, the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap each other on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history (2).
A mayor cantidad de oxitocina endógena, mejor interacción social. La oxitocina se produce por neuronas desde el núcleo del tracto solitario, y por neuronas desde el núcleo cerebral de la amígdala medial.
Esta es la oxitocina.
Cuando la oxitocina se administra en forma de aerosol nasal, para acceder al cerebro, puede dar como resultado aumento de las sensaciones subjetivas de confianza, generosidad, reconocimiento emocional y la empatía social. También se la ha relacionado con una sensación de calma y bienestar. Dados todos estos beneficios, la oxitocina en aerosol puede encontrarse en docenas de sitios en internet como la «poción del amor» para mejorar la vida propia vida sentimental, aunque estas afirmaciones son dudosas en el mejor de los casos.
Some articles as per this issue, because neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in utero and throughout life to determine the structure of the brain, and that because these interactions are complex, the result is a multi-morphic, rather than a dimorphic, brain.
The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends’ eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends’ pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebookbehavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.
Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients.
The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study.
There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profiletype, F(2, 250)=54.77, p<0.001, ηp(2)=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated thatpersonal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ηp(2)=0.02].
Our results suggest that a physician’s SNS profile affects a patient’s perception of that physician’s medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient’s perception of that physician’s character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.
Facebook; professionalism; professionalism scale; social networking
From the Social media use by health professionals occurs in a digital environment where etiquette has yet to be solidly defined. The objectives of this study were to explore veterinarians’ personal use of Facebook, knowledge of privacy settings, and factors related to sharing personal information online. All American Animal Hospital Association member veterinarians with a valid e-mail address (9469) were invited to complete an online survey about Facebook (e.g., time spent on Facebook, awareness of consequences, types of information posted). Questions assessing personality dimensions including trust, popularity, self-esteem and professional identity were included. The response rate was 17% (1594 of 9469); 72% of respondents (1148 of 1594) had a personalFacebookprofile. Veterinarians were more likely to share information on Facebook than they would in general. Trust, need for popularity, and more time spent on Facebook predicted more disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Awareness of consequences and increased veterinary experience predicted lesser disclosure. As veterinary practices use Facebook to improve client services, they need also to manage risks associated with online disclosure by staff. Raising awareness of reputation management and consequences of posting certain types of information to Facebook is integral to protecting the individual, the practice, and the veterinary profession.
This research examined how various members of a social network interact with the Facebook (FB) profile page of a friend who has died. From 43 in-depth qualitative interviews, FB friends of deceased FB users maintained their FB connection with the deceased. Most participants who visited the profile found it helpful to look at pictures; a few wrote messages to the deceased as a coping mechanism. In some instances, a spouse or parent controlled the profile, which respondents universally viewed as having a negative effect on their ability to cope with their loss.
Cyberbullying victims’ success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders’ social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim’s behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect’s underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim’s public Facebookprofile was manipulated in terms of the victim’s extraversion and the amount of personalinformation disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim’s perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim’s specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration–not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.
The current study examined viewers’ gaze while observing Facebook profiles of strangers varying in gender and physical attractiveness. Fifty-one participants viewed four Facebook profiles, a physically attractive and unattractive individual of each gender. Participants’ eye movements were tracked as they viewed eachprofile for 60 seconds. Results showed that participants paid more attention to the physical appearance (main profile photograph) of female than of male profileowners and to the personal information (likes and interests) of male than to female profile owners. Participants spent more time focusing on information that was irrelevant to forming an impression of the profile owner (advertisements) when viewing the profiles of unattractive than attractive individuals, suggesting that they made a greater effort to learn about these individuals.
Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults’ experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as “In a Relationship” and actively link one’s profile to a romantic partner’s, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.
Facebook has been identified as the preferred social networking site among postsecondary students. Repeated findings in the social networking literature have suggested that postsecondary students practice high personal self-disclosure on Facebook and tend not to use privacy settings that would limit public access. This study identified and reviewed Facebook profiles for 805 veterinarians-in-training enrolled at four veterinary colleges across Canada. Of these, 265 (32.9%) were categorized as having low exposure, 286 (35.5%) were categorized as having medium exposure, and 254 (31.6%) were categorized as having high exposure of information. Content analysis on a sub-sample (n=80) of the high-exposure profiles revealed publicly available unprofessional content, including indications of substance use and abuse, obscene comments, and breaches of client confidentiality. Regression analysis revealed that an increasing number of years to graduation and having a publicly visible wall were both positively associated with having a high-exposure profile. Given the rapid uptake of social media in recent years, veterinary educators should be aware of and begin to educate students on the associated risks and repercussions of blurring one’s private life and one’s emerging professional identity through personal online disclosures.
The current study examined the prevalence with which healthcare providers use a social media site (SMS) account (e.g., Facebook), the extent to which they use SMSs in clinical practice, and their decision-making process after accessing patient information from an SMS.
Pediatric faculty and trainees from a medical school campus were provided a SMS history form and seven fictional SMS adolescent profile vignettes that depicted concerning information. Participants were instructed to rate theirpersonal use and beliefs about SMSs and to report how they would respond if they obtained concerning information about an adolescent patient from their public SMS profile.
Healthcare providers generally believed it not to be an invasion of privacy to conduct an Internet/SMS search of someone they know. A small percentage of trainees reported a personal history of conducting an Internet search (18%) or an SMS search (14%) for a patient. However, no faculty endorsed a history of conducting searches for patients. Faculty and trainees also differed in how they would respond to concerning SMS adolescent profileinformation.
The findings that trainees are conducting Internet/SMS searches of patients and that faculty and trainees differ in how they would respond to concerning profile information suggest the need for specific guidelines regarding the role of SMSs in clinical practice. Practice, policy, and training implications are discussed.
Facebook is an increasingly popular online social networking site. The purpose of this study was to describe the Facebook activity of residents and fellows and their opinions regarding the impact of Facebook on the doctor-patient relationship.
An anonymous questionnaire was emailed to 405 residents and fellows at the Rouen University Hospital, France, in October 2009.
Of the 202 participants who returned the questionnaire (50%), 147 (73%) had a Facebookprofile. Among responders, 138 (99%) displayed their real name on their profile, 136 (97%) their birthdates, 128 (91%) a personalphotograph, 83 (59%) their current university and 76 (55%) their current position. Default privacy settings were changed by 61% of users, more frequently if they were registered for >1 year (p=0.02). If a patient requested them as a ‘friend’, 152 (85%) participants would automatically decline the request, 26 (15%) would decide on an individual basis and none would automatically accept the request. Eighty-eight participants (48%) believed that the doctor-patient relationship would be altered if patients discovered that their doctor had aFacebook account, but 139 (76%) considered that it would change only if the patient had open access to their doctor’s profile, independent of its content.
Residents and fellows frequently use Facebook and displaypersonal information on their profiles. Insufficient privacy protection might have an impact the doctor-patient relationship.